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Apple Cider Vinegar Studies

  1. https://examine.com/supplements/acv/

    Apple cider vinegar appears to have a modest ability to reduce the glycemic index of foods, making it a possible tool for helping to manage blood sugar. The ideal dose of apple cider vinegar is 30 ml daily, spread out between/before meals.

  2. While some studies do not demonstrate a significant effect of vinegar on markers of blood glucose control (Nutr Rev. 2014 Oct;72(10):651-61), there is a growing body of evidence that does show a significant impact. All of the studies listed below support the benefit of vinegar on measures of blood glucose control. A systemic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of vinegar (Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017 May;127:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.01.021. Epub 2017 Mar 2), finds that it can be effective in reducing postprandial glucose and insulin levels, indicating it could be considered as an adjunctive tool for improving glycemic control.

  3. Ann Nutr Metab. 2010;56(1):74-9. doi: 10.1159/000272133.

    Two teaspoons of vinegar ( 10 g) effectively reduced PPG, and this effect was most pronounced when vinegar was ingested during mealtime as compared to 5 h before the meal.

  4. Agric Biol Chem. 1988;52:1311–1312.

    In healthy human subjects, although the glucose response curve was not significantly altered, the area under the insulin response curve following the ingestion of 50 g sucrose was reduced 20% when coadministered with 60 mL strawberry vinegar.

  5. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49:242–247.

    Brighenti and colleagues demonstrated in normoglycemic subjects that 20 mL white vinegar (5% acetic acid) as a salad dressing ingredient reduced the glycemic response to a mixed meal (lettuce salad and white bread containing 50 g carbohydrate) by over 30% (P < .05).

  6. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;59(9):983-8.

    Supplementation of a meal based on white wheat bread with vinegar reduced postprandial responses of blood glucose and insulin, and increased the subjective rating of satiety in 12 healthy volunteers.

  7. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;64:886–893. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:1939–1942. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:1266–1271.

    Placebo-controlled trials have corroborated the meal-time, antiglycemic effects of 20 g vinegar in healthy adults.

  8. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:743–752.

    Sugiyama and colleagues documented that the addition of vinegar or pickled foods to rice (eg, sushi) decreased the GI of rice by 20% to 35% in healthy subjects.

  9. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:96–100.

    Ostman and colleagues reported that substitution of a pickled cucumber (1.6 g acetic acid) for a fresh cucumber (0 g acetic acid) in a test meal (bread, butter, and yogurt) reduced meal GI by over 30% in healthy subjects.

  10. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:281–282.

    Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this crossover trial, individuals with insulin resistance (n = 11, fasting insulin concentrations greater than 20 mU/mL) or with diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 10) consumed a vinegar test drink (20 g vinegar, 40 g water, 1 tsp saccharine) or placebo immediately before the consumption of a mixed meal (87 g total carbohydrate). In the insulin-resistant subjects, vinegar ingestion reduced postprandial glycemia 64% as compared with placebo values (P = .014) and improved postprandial insulin sensitivity by 34% (P= .01). In individuals with type 2 diabetes, vinegar ingestion was less effective at reducing mealtime glycemia (−17%, P = .149); however, vinegar ingestion was associated with a slight improvement in postprandial insulin sensitivity in these subjects (+19%, P = .07).

**A few studies show vinegar may be a helpful tool for weight management and it may help to reduce appetite.
  1. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009 Aug;73(8):1837-43.

    The effects of vinegar intake on the reduction of body fat mass in obese Japanese in A double-blind trial of obese Japanese men found reductions in body weight, BMI, visceral fat area, waist circumference, and serum triglyceride levels both vinegar intake groups (15 ml or 30 ml) compared to the placebo group over 12 weeks.

  2. J Functional Food Volume 43, April 2018, Pages 95-102.

    A randomized, clinical trial was performed to examine whether apple cider vinegar (ACV) can result in dietary modifications that provides beneficial effects on the management of body weight and serum metabolic profiles in overweight or obese individuals. The participants (n = 39) were randomly allocated into the ACV (subjected to a restricted calorie diet (RCD) with 250 kcal/day energy deficit and 30 mL/d of ACV)) or the control group (RCD only) for 12 weeks. The ACV significantly reduced body weight, BMI, Hip circumference, visceral adiposity index (VAI) and appetite score (P ≤ 0.00).

  3. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;59(9):983-8.

    Supplementation of a meal based on white wheat bread with vinegar reduced postprandial responses of blood glucose and insulin, and increased the subjective rating of satiety in 12 healthy volunteers.

  4. Nutr. Res. (N. Y. NY) 2011;31:436–443. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2011.05.011.

    In addition, a crossover study in overweight-obese subjects, the consumption of Kimchi (fermented Korean dish, unclear % of acetic acid) vs. unfermented dish reduced body fat (~1%), body weight (~1.5 kg), and BMI (0.6 kg/m2) after two weeks.

  5. Mol. Nutr. Food. Res. 2015;59:1004–1008. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201400780.

    In a crossover study, in overweight women, fermented Kimchi (unclear % of acetic acid) decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, which has been associated with weight loss.